The use of solar energy is becoming more and more popular. What is the working principle of the solar controller? The solar controller uses a single-chip microcomputer and special software to realize intelligent control and accurate discharge control using battery discharge rate with characteristic correction. The following inverter manufacturers will give a detailed introduction. Here are 6 characteristics of solar controllers:
1. Self-adaptive three-stage charging mode
Two reasons besides normal life aging mainly cause the deterioration of battery performance: internal gassing and water loss caused by too high charging voltage; the other is the extreme low charging voltage or insufficient charging—plate sulfation. Therefore, technicians must protect the charging of the battery against over-limit. Professionals intelligently divide it into three stages (constant current limit voltage, constant voltage reduction, and trickle current). Technicians automatically set the charging time of the three stages according to the difference between the new and the old batteries. They automatically use the corresponding charging mode to charge and avoid the battery power supply failure to achieve a safe, practical, and full-capacity charging effect.
2. Charging protection
When the battery voltage exceeds the final charging voltage, the battery will produce hydrogen and oxygen and open the valve to release gas. A large amount of gas evolution will inevitably lead to the loss of electrolyte fluid. Even if the battery reaches the final charging voltage, technicians cannot fully charge the battery, so the charging current should not be cut off. At this time, the built-in sensor adjusts the controller automatically according to the ambient temperature, under the condition that the charging voltage does not exceed the final value, and gradually reduces the charging current to a trickle state. It effectively controls the oxygen cycle recombination and cathode hydrogen evolution process inside the battery, to the greatest extent, preventing the decay of the battery capacity aging.
3. Discharge protection
If the technicians don’t protect the battery from discharge, it will also be damaged. When the voltage reaches the set minimum discharge voltage, the controller will automatically cut off the load to protect the battery from over-discharge. The controller will switch on the load again when the solar panel’s charging of the battery reaches the restart voltage set by the controller.
4. Gas regulation
If the battery fails to show a gassing reaction for a long time, the acid layer will appear inside the battery, which will also cause the capacity of the battery to decrease. Therefore, we can regularly shield the charging protection function through the digital circuit so that the battery will periodically experience outgassing of the charging voltage, prevent the acid layer of the battery, and reduce the capacity attenuation and memory effect of the battery. Extend battery life.
5. Overpressure protection
Technicians connect a 47V varistor in parallel to the charging voltage input terminal. It will be broken down when the voltage reaches 47V, causing a short circuit between the positive and negative terminals of the input terminal (this will not damage the solar panel) to prevent high voltage from damaging the controller and battery.
6. Overcurrent protection
The solar controller connects a fuse in series between the circuit of the battery to effectively protect the battery from overcurrent. These all characteristics of solar controllers make them good to work with solar systems and extend the battery life.